Working Principle of Fiber Laser Cutting Machine


Principle of Fiber Laser Cutting machine

The fiber laser cutting machine is a device that utilizes the process of heating the material with a laser until it surpasses its melting point to perform cutting.

Principle of Laser Cutting:

Laser cutting employs the high-density energy produced by a focused laser. By controlling the laser’s repetitive high-frequency pulses, a beam with a specific frequency and pulse width is formed. This pulsed laser beam is transmitted and focused on the surface of the material being processed, creating a small, high-energy density beam. The material melts or vaporizes in an instant high temperature, thus achieving precise cutting.

To understand the working principle of the fiber laser cutting machine, it is first and foremost a CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machine tool with X, Y, Z three axes that can move in a plane. When a CNC machine is equipped with a fiber laser as the light optic source, it becomes a fiber laser cutting machine, capable of cutting metal materials by controlling the fiber laser beam.

To cut metal materials with a fiber laser, essential components include a fiber laser generator and a laser head, mainly composed of optical lenses, including focusing and collimating lenses. Many people might think the laser head emits the laser, but in reality, it’s the fiber laser generator that does. The laser beam is then transmitted to the laser head through an optical cable, enabling the cutting of metal materials. Since the photoelectric conversion rate cannot reach 100%, a water chiller is needed to dispose of some residual heat.

For a deeper understanding of the fiber laser cutting machine’s working principle, one must understanding of fiber lasers.

What is a Fiber Laser?

A fiber laser is actually a type of solid-state laser, using ytterbium (YB) as the core element, giving the core the highest refractive index and covered by two layers of cladding with lower refractive rates. And it is delivery via fiber cable.

What is a CNC Machine Tool?

It is a computer-controlled machine tool capable of three-axis or multi-axis movement. The CNC machine tool used for laser cutting is a three-axis machine, with X, Y, Z axes controlled by a PLC controller to rotate the servo motors, thus moving each axis of the machine. Meanwhile, by controlling the emission of the laser, laser cutting is Enable.

Steps in Laser Cutting Operation:

1.Secure the material sheet metal to be cut on the worktable of the fiber laser cutting machine.
2.Adjust the equipment parameters according to the metal sheet thickness.
3.Select the appropriate gas for nozzle, ensuring they are intact and clean.
4.Adjust the cutting head to the correct focal position.
5.Choose the right cutting gas and ensure proper exhaust.
6.Make sure the water chiller is on.
7.Perform a trial cut and inspect the quality of the cutting surface.
8. Analyze the cutting surface and adjust parameters as needed.

Applications of Fiber Lasers:

Due to their excellent beam quality, high electro-optical efficiency, compact structure, and reliability, fiber lasers are widely applied in the industry.

Normally low-power fiber lasers (<50 watts) mainly for micro-structuring, laser marking, trimming, precision drilling, metal engraving;

medium-power fiber lasers (50~500 watts) for thin metal sheet perforation, welding, cutting, and surface treatment;

and high-power fiber lasers (>1000 watts) for thick metal sheet cutting, metal surface coating, and 3D processing of special plates.

The flexibility of fiber lasers allows them to be seamlessly integrated with robotic arms, meeting the requirements of various complex industrial environments.

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